This article traces the meaning of same-sex sexuality in Vietnamese-language popular sources from the Renovation period to the early years of the millennium to argue that one dominant meaning prevailed: the idea that homosexual identity is synonymous with gender-crossing. Historical studies have shown that in certain times and places, same-sex sexuality was predicated on other variables, such as status and power, not gender. Yet, the Vietnamese sources insist on the centrality of gender in homosexual definition. This article discusses two historical discourses, one medical and the other state-sponsored, that contributed to the shaping of this definition.
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