Relying on Vietnamese archival documents, this article reveals that Chinese chauvinistic behaviors during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1968) triggered the Vietnamese fear of Chinese expansionism and caused Hà Nội to distrust Beijing's intentions in Indochina. With such fear and distrust, Hà Nội's leaders changed their mind about the desirability of Beijing's proposed redeployment of Chinese volunteers to North Vietnam to confront the US escalation of war in Indochina in the Spring of 1970, despite the fact that they were facing enormous shortage of manpower to meet the dual demand of economic reconstruction in the North and the war effort in the South.
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